HowTo: Check and Change File Encoding In Linux

The Linux administrators that work with web hosting know how is it important to keep correct character encoding of the html documents.

From the following article you’ll learn how to check a file’s encoding from the command line in Linux.

You will also find the best solution to convert text files between different charsets.

I’ll also show the most common examples of how to convert a file’s encoding between CP1251 (Windows-1251, Cyrillic), UTF-8, ISO-8859-1 and ASCII charsets.

Cool Tip: Want see your native language in the Linux terminal? Simply change locale! Read more →

Check a File’s Encoding

Use the following command to check what encoding is used in a file:

$ file -bi [filename]
Option Description
-b, --brief Don’t print filename (brief mode)
-i, --mime Print filetype and encoding

Check the encoding of the file in.txt:

$ file -bi in.txt
text/plain; charset=utf-8

Change a File’s Encoding

Use the following command to change the encoding of a file:

$ iconv -f [encoding] -t [encoding] -o [newfilename] [filename]
Option Description
-f, --from-code Convert a file’s encoding from charset
-t, --to-code Convert a file’s encoding to charset
-o, --output Specify output file (instead of stdout)

Change a file’s encoding from CP1251 (Windows-1251, Cyrillic) charset to UTF-8:

$ iconv -f cp1251 -t utf-8 in.txt

Change a file’s encoding from ISO-8859-1 charset to UTF-8 and save it to out.txt:

$ iconv -f iso-8859-1 -t utf-8 -o out.txt in.txt

Change a file’s encoding from ASCII to UTF-8:

$ iconv -f utf-8 -t ascii -o out.txt in.txt

Change a file’s encoding from UTF-8 charset to ASCII:

Illegal input sequence at position: As UTF-8 can contain characters that can’t be encoded with ASCII, the iconv will generate the error message “illegal input sequence at position” unless you tell it to strip all non-ASCII characters using the -c option.

$ iconv -c -f utf-8 -t ascii -o out.txt in.txt
Option Description
-c Omit invalid characters from the output

You can lose characters: Note that if you use the iconv with the -c option, nonconvertible characters will be lost.

Very common situation for ones who work inside the both Windows and Linux machines.

This concerns in particular Windows machines with Cyrillic.

You have copied some file from Windows to Linux, but when you open it in Linux, you see “Êàêèå-òî êðàêîçÿáðû” – WTF!?

Don’t panic – such strings can be easily converted from CP1251 (Windows-1251, Cyrillic) charset to UTF-8 with:

$ echo "Êàêèå-òî êðàêîçÿáðû" | iconv -t latin1 | iconv -f cp1251 -t utf-8
Какие-то кракозябры

List All Charsets

List all the known charsets in your Linux system:

$ iconv -l
Option Description
-l, --list List known charsets