awk are the most common Linux command line tools for parsing files.
From the following article you’ll learn how to match multiple patterns with the
NOT operators, using
awk commands from the Linux command line.
I’ll show the examples of how to find the lines, that match any of multiple patterns, how to print the lines of a file, that match each of provided patterns and how to find and print the lines, that do not match a pattern (negative matching).
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GREP OR: Match Any Of Multiple Patterns
Find all the lines of a file, that match any of provided patterns.
$ grep "PATTERN1\|PATTERN2" FILE $ grep -E "PATTERN1|PATTERN2" FILE $ grep -e PATTERN1 -e PATTERN2 FILE $ egrep "PATTERN1|PATTERN2" FILE
$ awk '/PATTERN1|PATTERN2/' FILE
$ sed -e '/PATTERN1/b' -e '/PATTERN2/b' -e d FILE
GREP AND: Match Multiple Patterns
It is also often required to
grep a file for multiple patterns – when it is needed to find all the lines in a file, that contain not one, but several patterns.
Note, that you can both find the lines in a file that match multiple patterns in the exact order or in the any order.
Use one of the following commands to find and print all the lines of a file, that match multiple patterns.
grep command (exact order):
$ grep -E 'PATTERN1.*PATTERN2' FILE
grep command (any order):
$ grep -E 'PATTERN1.*PATTERN2|PATTERN2.*PATTERN1' FILE $ grep 'PATTERN1' FILE | grep 'PATTERN2'
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awk command (exact order):
$ awk '/PATTERN1.*PATTERN2/' FILE
awk command (any order):
$ awk '/PATTERN1/ && /PATTERN2/' FILE
sed command (exact order):
$ sed '/PATTERN1.*PATTERN2/!d' FILE
sed command (any order):
$ sed '/PATTERN1/!d; /PATTERN2/!d' FILE
GREP NOT: Negative Matching
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Find and print all the lines, that do not match a pattern.
$ grep -v 'PATTERN1' FILE
$ awk '!/PATTERN1/' FILE
$ sed -n '/PATTERN1/!p' FILE